Academic Referencing Tool (ART)
APA 6 - Style NotesPrint
Same name and same publication date
When citing a single author with two or more references with the same publication date use the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth to indicate the correct reference in text e.g.
Several studies confirm … (Derryberry & Reed, 2005a, 2005b; Rothbart, 2003a, 2003b).
Order the references alphabetically by title in the reference list and then assign a, b, c, and so forth to use in text.
Same name for multiple authors
When citing the same surname for more than one author give their initials in text e.g.
"Among studies, we review M. A. Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)."
Same surname and initials
If the initials are also the same give the authors full name in brackets e.g.
In the reference list
Janet, P. [Paul]. (2007).
(Paul Janet, 2007)
Janet, P. [Percy]. (1979).
(Percy Janet, 1979)
First citation and subsequent citations
Use the table to determine the correct format depending on the number of authors.
Type of citation First citation in text Subsequent citations in text Bracket format, first citation in text Bracket format, subsequent citations in text One author Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007) Two authors Walker and Allen (2004) Walker and Allen (2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) (Walker & Allen, 2004) Three to five authors Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo (1999) Bradley et al. (1999) (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999) (Bradley et al., 1999) Six or more authors Wasserstein et al. (2005) Wasserstein et al. (2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) (Wasserstein et al., 2005) Groups University of Pittsburgh (2005) University of Pittsburgh (2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) Groups
(readily identified by abbreviation)
Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST, 2008) DEST (2008) (Department of Education, Science and Training [DEST], 2008) (DEST, 2008)
Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 177
Authors in the reference list
Alphabetise by the author's surname.
Use the rule "nothing precedes something", therefore Brown, Z. comes before Browning, H.
When listing multiple works by one author list the earliest date first.
Check the Formats section for citing works with no author.
When the author and the publisher are identical use the word Author in the place of the publisher (e.g. Canberra, Australia: Author).
- 12-point type size (never use a larger point size for headings or on the title page)
- Use Times or Times New Roman
- 2.54 cm at the top, bottom, left-hand, and right-hand sides of the page
- Double-line spacing
(do not insert any extra line spaces between paragraphs, or between reference entries)
- Use one space after all punctuation.
exceptions – the periods in abbreviations (et al., p.m.) or colons in ratios (10:1)
- Space twice after punctuation at end of sentence.
Rules for the use of indents:
- Indent the first line of each paragraph (tab key)
- Exceptions: abstract, block quotations, titles and headings, table titles and notes
- These apply the hanging indent for the second and subsequent lines
Bailey, S. (2011). Academic writing: A handbook for international students (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Routledge.
Justification of text
- Only the left hand margin of the text needs to be justified.
- The lines on the right hand margin should end unevenly.
Place of publication
For publishers located in the US give the city and the state abbreviation e.g. Upper Saddle River, N.J.
For publishers outside of the US give the city and country e.g. London, England.
Abbreviation Book or publication part ed. edition Rev. ed. Revised edition 2nd ed. second edition Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors) Trans. Translator(s) n.d. no date p. (pp.) page (pages) Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4) Vols. Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4) No. Number Pt. Part Tech. Rep. Technical Report Suppl. Supplement para. paragraph
Adapted from APA publication manual 6th edition p. 180
This information is based on the following style manual. Please consult this manual directly for more detailed information: APA. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) Washington, DC: APA.