Academic Referencing Tool (ART)
Harvard - Style NotesPrint
Abbreviation Meaning ed. editor (single) eds editors edn edition comp. compiler comps compilers trans. translated rev. revised / reviser n.d. no date c. circa, use when you are unsure of a date (c. 1993) et al. and others vol. volume no. number p. page pp. plural pages e.g. p. 32-45.
In text referencing
Multiple works by the same author:
- In-text citations: if you list separate citations for each work, follow the appropriate citation style.
- If you include two or more works by the same author within the same parentheses, you should arrange the citations by year of publication. Give the authors' surname once and for each subsequent work give only the date e.g. (Smith, 2002, 2004).
Multiple works published in the same year by the same author:
- When the same author has two or more works published in the same year arrange the references in the reference list alphabetically by author and then alphabetically by title.
- Differentiate between them by adding a suffix a, b, c etc. For example:
The Australian century (Manne 2001a) and The Barren years (Manne 2001b).
- Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.g. (Manne 2001b).
Different authors with the same name:
- When different authors share the same family name include the initials in addition to the family name e.g. (James HB 2004) (James P 1997)
- Use the organisation or group name in the same way as for an individual author substituting the group name for the family name. For example:
(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007) (World Health Organization 2009) or (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade)
- If the name is long and referred to more than once it can be abbreviated after the first time, e.g. The Australian Bureau of Statistics revealed that....(ABS 2006).
- Be consistent and use the abbreviation for all subsequent in-text citations. Include a cross-reference for the abbreviation in the reference abbreviation e.g. ABS – see Australian Bureau of Statistics
- Use the whole name in the reference list.
- Use only the initials of the authors' given names. No full stops, and no spaces, are used between initials i.e. Smith, JP & Jones D
- Works by the same author, published in the same year:
If you are citing several works published by the same author in the same year, you should list these works alphabetically by author and then differentiate between them by adding a lower case letter after the year for each item i.e. 2003a, 2003b. Do this both in your in-text references and in your reference list.
- For books use minimal capitalisation. Capitalise the first word of the title and any proper nouns within the title e.g. World society and the Middle East: reconstructions in regional politics
- For journals magazines and newspapers capitalise all the main words e.g. The Sydney Morning Herald, Studies in Higher Education, The Financial Review
- Use italics for the titles of books, journals, and newspapers i.e.
Broome, R 2010, Aboriginal Australians: a history since 1788,4th edn, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, N.S.W.
- If there is a title referred to within the title put it in single quotes e.g. Imperialism, reform and the making of Englishness in 'Jane Eyre',
- Enclose titles of book chapters and journal articles in single quotation marks i.e.
Gray, E 2009, 'The hair of Milton: historicism and literary history', in D Walford Davies (ed.), Romanticism, history, historicism: essays on an orthodoxy,Routledge, New York, pp. 32-42.
- Take the title from the title page of the book – not the front cover or the spine
Citing electronic resources
Many books and journals are published both in print and online versions.If the article is obtained from an online journal or an online source such as Expanded Academic or Lexis.com, do not give the web address in the citation. Simply cite the journal using the above conventions.
- Authors: When finding information about the authorship of a webpage, if there is not enough information on the page you are quoting from you can look at a website's Home Page, About Us or Contact pages to determine authorship.
- If there is no date of creation, last update or last revision, you can use the copyright date.If it is a range of dates, eg. ©2004-2010 use the latest date.
- The date you looked at the webpage must be documented and cited as viewed.
- Title: When citing an entire website, reference the website in text only e.g. Department of Finance and Deregulation website is a valuable resource (http://www.finance.gov.au).
- Document within a web site: Consider it the same as a published document or a book using the same information with the additional information on the date viewed and the URL
Author/Editor, Initial/s Date of the document,Title of document, name of the sponsor of the source (who is responsible for the site),viewed day month year, <URL>.
In text referencing
- Only use the year of publication even if you have exact dates
- If a date cannot be located use n.d. = no known date e.g. (Lear n.d.)
- Use a question mark for a possible or dubious date of publication date e.g. (Cope 2003?)
- If a publication date can be established with some accuracy use the abbreviation c. (meaning circa – about) before the date e.g. (Mitchell c. 2007) or Mitchell (c. 2007)
- Forthcoming publications are written as... Porter (Forthcoming) or (Porter Forthcoming)
The items in the reference list are arranged alphabetically by the author's surname. If you have cited more than one work by the same author, you should arrange them by firs by the author's surname and then by date, i.e. start with the earliest and end with the latest.
In the Harvard system of referencing, all the elements of the reference after the date are separated from each other by commas. A full stop concludes the citation. For example:
- Author, initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.
- Author, initial(s) Year of publication, Title, edition, Publisher, Place of publication.
- Author, initial(s) Year of publication, 'Journal article title', Journal Title, issue details, page reference.
In text referencing
- Always include page numbers for a 'direct quote'.
- Include a page number if the idea being paraphrased is from a specific page
- Include a page number if it might be useful to the reader
- In the in-text citation you need to put the put the page number after the year of publication and place a comma after the year e.g. (Sackers 2009, p. 34)
- Use p. for a single page and pp. for a page range e.g.(Metcalfe 2005, p. 17) or (Metcalfe 2005, pp. 17-19)
- For Books -page numbers are not usually needed in the reference list. If you do include them add them as the final item of the citation, separated from the preceding one by a comma, and followed by a full stopi.e.
Hiscock, A & Longstaffe, S (eds) 2009, The Shakespeare handbook, Continuum, London, p. 34.
- For Journal articles -page numbers appear as the final item of the citation, separated from the preceding one by a comma, and followed by a full stop. i.e.
Lee, H 2007, 'Transforming transnationalism: second generation Tongans overseas', Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 157-178.
- Use the abbreviations p. for a single page, and pp. for a page range, e.g. pp. 11-12.
Place of publication
- Do not use full stops in abbreviated place names e.g.
- NSW not N.S.W.
- SA not S.A.
- UK not U.K.
- If two or more places of publication are listed on the title page of the book e.g. London, Portland OR, only cite the first one i.e. London.
Two or more works cited at the same point
In text referencing
- Separate the different authors with a semicolon
- List the authors alphabetically within the brackets e.g. (Clifford 2003; Mitchell 2000; Stafford 2009)
- Do not use and or &between the names e.g. (Biggs 2007; Ramsden 1997)
Based on Snooks & Co 2002 Style manual for authors, editors and printers , 6th edn, rev. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.