Tortoise-Leden-18-2

The Tortoise's Tale

"... we went to school in the sea. The Master was an old turtle-we used to call him Tortoise-"
"Why did you call him Tortoise, if he wasn't one?" Alice asked.
"We called him Tortoise, because he taught us, " said the Mock Turtle

Jill P. May, editor


Emily Byrd Starr Conventionalized: omissions of nature descriptions in the Swedish translation of L.M. Montgomery’s Emily Trilogy

Laura Leden


Laura Leden is a PhD candidate at the University of Helsinki in Finland and holds a MA in Swedish Translation Studies and a BA in Scandinavian Literature. She has presented at the L.M. Montgomery Conference twice and her research interests include translation of children’s literature, in particular girls’ books. She currently works as a translator.


I am in the privileged position of being able to read and study translations such as those of L.M. Montgomery’s Emily trilogy in two languages, besides the original English version, since both Swedish and Finnish are my native languages. I studied both the Swedish and Finnish translations of the Emily trilogy in detail for my master’s thesis and concluded that there are extensive omissions in both, though especially in the Swedish translation, and the omissions affect characterization. In my master’s thesis I analyzed all omissions in the translations based on categories presented by translation scholars Rodica Dimitriu and Eirlys E. Davies, I described different types of omissions, and lastly, I analyzed their effects on characterization based on Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan’s theory about character indicators. This column is based on my thesis which was written in Swedish and therefore I will reference many international and Scandinavian sources that I used in the thesis. I will argue that the omission of descriptions of nature in the Swedish [1] translation of the Emily trilogy has affected the characterization of Emily, and I will explore what this reveals about translations of children’s literature.

Studying translations is a way to discover what kind of children’s literature was desired at a certain point in time in a certain culture, because comparing originals and translations shows what has been adapted. As children’s literature scholar Zohar Shavit expresses it, “translation norms expose more clearly the constraints imposed on [children’s literature]” (112). For original works, we can rarely know what kind of changes may have been required before their publication. It is also important for scholars and readers to be aware that a translation and its source text are not always identical; translation norms at the time of translation may have had a considerable impact on the narrative.

Despite the fact that omissions are not uncommon in translations of children’s literature, there are few extensive studies on omissions and their effects. However, omissions have been studied as part of adaptation studies in translated children’s literature. Classics are a common subject of these studies. Mieke K.T. Desmet studied three translations of Louisa M. Alcott’s Little Women in a chapter of her dissertation on adaptation in Dutch translations of English narrative fiction for girls published 1946–1995. All three translations are extensively abridged but employ somewhat different strategies when choosing what to omit and condense, depending on what aspect of the book the translation was meant to emphasize (classic elements, moral aspects or popular love story) (227). For all three translations, Desmet mentions descriptive and reflective passages as one type of omission in addition to different types of purification and cultural adaptation (207, 215, 224). In all three cases she suggests effects on characterization, such as the different degrees of reduction of the characterization of Jo March as a writer, and the undermining of the gender tension theme (204–209, 213–215, 221–222). Norwegian children’s literature scholar Kari Skjønsberg noted somewhat similar adaptation in the Norwegian translation of Little Women, primarily resulting in reduction of the moral aspects (78). Effects of omission on characterization have also been noted in translations of Montgomery’s books. Martina Seifert writes that the action-oriented adapted German translation of Anne of Green Gables deletes Anne’s imaginative musings as well as descriptions of nature, which both affect the characterization of Anne as an imaginative person (336). Danièle Allard has found omissions in the last chapters of the first Japanese translation of Anne of Green Gables and concludes that these omissions Japanize the ending and cut out anything not strictly essential to the plot without having an irreparable impact on the book as a whole (354–356).

Omission is a widely criticized translation strategy because it does not follow the norms of equivalence between source and target text. Equivalence is an important aspect of the “folk view” of what a typical translation is, as suggested by translation scholar Andrew Chesterman (208). Omission is a target text related, domesticating strategy, where elements are cut due to reasons related to the target culture. According to Dimitriu, negative attitudes about omissions stem from source text oriented translation theory, which has its roots in biblical translation (163–164). However, as Davies notes, literary translators have traditionally been given greater freedom to make changes such as omissions in translations, since it is never possible to reproduce every aspect of a literary source text in a translation (57). But omissions can also be problematic in literary translations, especially when they change the author’s general intent and when the abridgment is hidden without the translation being labeled as an adapted translation. Many translations of children’s literature land very far from Chesterman’s prototype of translations when it comes to equivalence without any mention of this in the books.

This raises the question of why omissions are common in children’s literature and why it has not been considered necessary to inform readers that some translations are adapted translations rather than complete renderings of their originals. Zohar Shavit suggests that the reason for the extensive use of omission is the peripheral status of children’s literature in the literary polysystem where canonized adult literature has the most central position (112). According to the polysystem theory, which Shavit advocates, translation of peripheral genres is characterized by strategies of acceptance rather than adequacy (see Even-Zohar 50–51). Thus, manipulation is more likely to be allowed. Another characteristic that distinguishes children’s literature from adult literature is that children’s literature simultaneously belongs to the literary system and to the social-educational system. Translations of children’s literature must also take the needs of the child reader into consideration. All of this influences the translation norms of children’s literature.

The norms at the time of translation govern what translation strategies are used. According to Isabelle Desmidt, translation of children’s literature follows the same norms as translation of literature for adults, i.e. source text related equivalence norms, literary norms and commercial norms, but also two additional types of norms: didactic and pedagogical. Didactic norms mean adaptation to enhance the intellectual and emotional development of the child and to set good, worthy examples. Pedagogical norms mean adaptation to the language skills and conceptual knowledge of the child, which may result in, for example, adaptation of cultural elements. What the implications of these norms are varies over time. The didactic and pedagogical norms clash with the norms of equivalence between source and target texts, which are considered the most important norms today (86). Therefore, didactic and pedagogical norms can be considered problematic, especially when they result in extensive omissions as in the case of the Swedish Emily translations.

In addition to didactic and pedagogical norms, omissions can also be a result of what Skjønsberg calls commercial adaptation, which means adaptation of a book to have a certain number of pages (10). She notes that such adaptation may be done either by the publisher or the translator (40). Commercial adaptation may be considered necessary, for example, in cases where the translation is to be published in a series where all books should have approximately the same number of pages. This applies to the Swedish translations of many of L.M. Montgomery’s books. Åsa Warnqvist, who has researched the publishing history of the Swedish translation of Anne of Green Gables, has found that the book was abridged at the publisher’s request to fit into the publisher Gleerup’s series of young adult books called Gleerups ungdomsböcker [Gleerup’s young adult books] (“I experienced” 229, 232).

According to Warnqvist, another reason for the abridgement of the Swedish translation of Anne of Green Gables is that the Gleerup version was aimed at a younger audience than Montgomery’s original (“I experienced” 232). Omissions in this translation have been studied by Cornelia Rémi, who found that omissions in the later chapters emphasize Anne’s childlike traits at the expense of the more mature Anne (167–168). This supports the theory that this and other translations published in the Gleerup series are targeted towards a younger audience. The Emily translations were published in the same Gleerup series, and my research indicates that they were also targeted at younger readers and abridged to fit into the series.

Decisions on what to omit when a book needs to be abridged due to restrictions limiting the number of pages and targeting a younger audience are based on the above-mentioned didactic and pedagogical norms governing the translation of children’s literature, but, according to my research, are also based on the controversial assumption that children need or prefer plot-driven books. According to Zohar Shavit, when translators of children’s literature need to abridge a text, they prefer to omit passages that do not contribute to the plot in its most narrow sense, because action and plot are considered the most important element in children’s literature (124). Shavit’s discoveries are not surprising in the light that action-orientation is often described as a typical characteristic of children’s literature (see e.g. Perry Nodelman 190 and Maria Nikolajeva 222). This seems to have had a restrictive impact on the emergence of translations of children’s literature with atypical, non-action-oriented characteristics. Shavit notes that in translations of children’s literature only the conventional tends to be accepted, due to the peripheral position of the genre (115). My research, in which I categorized omissions in the Swedish (and Finnish) translations of the Emily trilogy according to reasons for the omissions, showed that the largest category is purification due to didactic norms, and the second largest category is what I call omission due to “insufficient contribution to the plot” (Leden 39). A majority of the omissions in the latter category are descriptions of nature that are typically not considered to contribute to the plot in the narrow action-driven sense and may have been omitted based on the assumption that children presumably find them boring (72, 74).

The major omissions made in the Swedish translations of L.M. Montgomery’s books do not seem to have greatly affected the popularity of the books in Sweden, especially not when it comes to the Anne books. Montgomery has been widely read in Sweden ever since Anne of Green Gables (1908) was translated in 1909. In fact, Swedish was the first language for the book's translation. In 2009, the reader response anthology Besläktade själar (Kindred spirits) edited by Åsa Warnqvist was published to commemorate 100 years of L.M. Montgomery in Sweden. This anthology, which mainly focuses on the Anne books, reflects the continuous popularity of her books among generations of Swedish readers.

Unlike the Anne books, translation of the Emily books into Swedish did not begin until almost three decades after the originals had been published. The Swedish translations of Emily of New Moon and Emily Climbs were made by Stina Hergin [2] in the 1950s; the most remarkable change is that these two books were divided into three books called Emily, Emily och hennes vänner [Emily and her friends [3], and Emily på egna vägar [Emily follows her own path]. The translations are clearly abridged, omitting 13% and 16% of the text respectively, and omissions range from a single clause or sentence up to several pages (Leden 37, 41). If the two books had not been divided into three, even more extensive omissions would have been required to fit the books into the publisher Gleerup’s [4] series of young adult books. According to Stefan Mählqvist, the target audience defined by Gleerup for each of their three Emily books was girls aged 10 to 14 years, 11 to 15 years, and 11 years and older, respectively. The last book of the Emily trilogy, Emily’s Quest, was not translated into Swedish until 1985, probably because it was found to be altogether unsuitable for the Gleerup series. [5]

It is important to examine how omissions affect textual interpretation. In the following, I will show how omissions of nature descriptions affect characterization of Emily in Emily Climbs, which is the book with the most omissions in the Swedish translation. Descriptions of nature are an important part of Montgomery’s books; they are seldom mere descriptions, but typically have an additional dimension.

In the Emily books, landscape analogies are a common type of reinforcement of characterization. According to Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan, landscape analogies are based on the similarity or contrast between character and landscape (69). In the Emily books, the landscape is analogous to Emily’s creativity, but the connection is even deeper. The landscape not only characterizes Emily but is a part of her identity. Emily’s relationship to nature is a character trait in itself. It is impossible to entirely omit this trait in translation, but this analysis of omissions in the Swedish translation of Emily Climbs will demonstrate that the importance and depth of Emily’s relationship to nature has been greatly reduced.
Elizabeth Epperly writes that the descriptions of nature contribute to the interpretation of Emily’s feelings and frame all her important experiences (125). Epperly calls Emily “a creative observer of the land” and states that nature reflects Emily’s passion of depicting visual impressions in writing (126, 139). In Emily Climbs, most of Emily’s creative experiences in nature are set in the Land of Uprightness, the woods behind her Aunt Ruth’s house in Shrewsbury where Emily attends high school. In the Swedish translation, all longer passages describing the Land of Uprightness and Emily’s experiences there have been omitted or abridged. The effect on Emily’s characterization is that her kinship with the Land of Uprightness diminishes in importance considerably. Emily’s experiences in nature are fewer and less strong. The impact of this is that the significance of nature as a source of creativity and a contrast to Emily’s everyday life in school is reduced.

Emily’s strongest experiences in nature are when she experiences “the flash.” Irene Gammel describes the flash as a sensual experience that is both pagan and physical (121). There are numerous references to the flash in the trilogy, and many have been omitted, though not all since they are often essential to the plot. In one of the omitted descriptions of the flash, Emily walks in the Land of Uprightness in an excited state of mind and is “one with [nature’s] beauty and charm and mystery” (Montgomery, Emily Climbs 132). In another omitted passage, Emily shivers with the ecstasy of the beauty that flows through her like a current after experiencing the flash. Similarly, in an omitted passage about a walk in the Land of Uprightness Emily describes how “the loveliness of the evening flows through [her] like music” (245). Emily experiences nature in a very physical way. Gammel connects Emily’s physical relationship to nature with sexuality (121). In the Swedish translation, this interpretation of an erotic dimension in Emily’s relationship to nature is not possible, because her physical relationship to nature is omitted. Therefore, omissions of nature descriptions result in purifying omissions concerning sexuality.

In many of the omitted passages, nature is personified and becomes a character of its own. In the source text, the wind is often referred to as the Wind Woman, which emphasizes Emily’s connection and friendship with nature. The Wind Woman is mentioned much less frequently in the translation than in the source text. Many extensive omissions have been made where Emily describes nature in her diary entries. For example, in her omitted diary entry of June 10th Emily talks about her friendship with trees. The personification of the trees is very apparent because Emily attributes human characteristics and patterns of thought to them. The translator or publisher may have considered this to be uncanny or too strange. Furthermore, Emily’s relationship to trees has a pantheistic dimension, which she hints at by saying she worships them.

The longest omitted passage of a nature description in Emily Climbs is an entire diary entry (April 20th) about a walk in the Land of Uprightness. During her walk, Emily sees both ancient gods and companies of goblins, which represent both the pantheistic and fairytale-like dimension of nature. Religious undertones are present throughout the passage through use of words such as chant and Paradise. Similarly, pantheistic undertones are present in other omitted passages. In this diary entry, Emily’s experience in nature is further intensified when she walks home in the darkness and finds the character of her Land of Uprightness changed – she calls it “a place given over to paganism” (245). In this paragraph, Emily is aware that she is experiencing something forbidden since she talks about paganism and writes that she does not “believe that the woods are ever wholly Christian” (245). This pantheistic relationship to nature has likely contributed to the decision to omit the entire diary entry. It seems that the translator or publisher did not want to expose the target readers to religious undertones that differ from traditional Christianity, despite the author's description of these kinds of experiences as something unconventional; the experience is described with words such as pagan and unholy, which would have negative connotations. This walk characterizes Emily’s relationship to nature in a way that is not present anywhere in the translation. Emily does not experience such strong rapture in the translation; the hints of paganism and pantheism have been omitted entirely and the connection between nature and fairyland is diminished. This omitted description of Emily’s walk in the Land of Uprightness is also connected to creativity since the experience results in her writing a poem.

Omissions of natural descriptions do not only concern the Land of Uprightness. Another strong experience in nature that inspires poetry in Emily is when she and her friend Ilse spend a night on a haystack. This passage is subject to extensive omissions and changes in translation. In the source text, Emily makes up a poem and a story in her head as she takes in the beauty of nature. Nature and creativity are inseparable. The passage ends with Emily pondering whether she is worthy to mediate such a divine message as she receives from nature. She decides to serve the “high priestess of beauty” in her creative work (178). In the translation, only a rather straightforward description of Emily admiring the moon and then falling asleep is left for the reader. Compared to the ecstasy Emily experiences in the source text, the experience in the translation is only one of general happiness and satisfaction. The omitted parts of this experience define Emily’s creativity.

In both Montgomery's original text and the translation, the night on a haystack is called a milestone. In Montgomery, Emily fantasizes about witches riding past and a dream-life on a happy planet; these fantasies are both a product of and a reason for her rapture. In the translation, the reason the night is considered a milestone is not very clear since the experience itself is barely described and Emily’s fantasies have been omitted. Only her friend Teddy’s earlier fantasies about a previous existence on a star are mentioned, which is unfortunate, because this suppresses Emily’s creative fantasies and may give the impression that Emily’s rapture is somehow connected to her crush on Teddy.

A further type of omission affecting the author's characterization of Emily as a creative person is the omission of intertextuality. Such omissions of cultural intertextual references that are not part of the target readers’ cultural memory are made because of pedagogical norms. The most important intertextuality in the Emily trilogy is the poem “The Fringed Gentian” where Emily, like Montgomery herself, finds the phrase “the Alpine Path” which is used as a metaphor for Emily’s career. The poem is quoted in Emily of New Moon, and thereafter it is referred to throughout the trilogy. In the Swedish translation the poem has been omitted. Consequently, all subsequent references to the Alpine Path have been omitted or otherwise adapted in the Swedish translations of Emily of New Moon and Emily Climbs. However, in the translation of Emily’s Quest, made by a different translator, the references appear without any further explanation of the reference. Another omitted but important intertextual reference is a quote from the poem “Endymion” by John Keats. The expression “airy voices” that is derived from this poem is used several times in Emily Climbs to describe Emily’s inspiration. All these references have been omitted. Also, many other intertextual references to English literature have been omitted. Perhaps the translator judged that the Swedish target readers would not be familiar with these works, but these intertextual references link Emily to the literary world and represent her literary creativity and interest. Therefore, omissions of these references have a similar conventionalizing effect as the omissions of natural descriptions.

A close, comparative analysis like this shows that omissions may result in a different story from the one the author intended. Nature plays a smaller role in the Swedish translation of Emily Climbs and the focus shifts to Emily’s life at school. The extensive omissions of natural descriptions result in the marginalization of an important character, nature, and affect the characterization of Emily, as Emily’s relationship to nature is not as strong as in the original text. Indications of the physical dimension of Emily’s relationship to nature have been left out, and most of the pantheistic and pagan dimensions have been lost. Emily has become more conventional. To quote one of the omitted passages, the Emily of the Swedish translation lacks a “lawless strain hidden deep in [her] nature” (151). The characterization of Emily as a creative person decreases when passages where she is in creative interaction with nature are omitted. Omissions of intertextual references also downplay Emily’s creative actions. This reduction of Emily’s creativity parallels Desmet’s discoveries regarding omission of Jo March’s creative writing in Dutch translations of Alcott’s Little Women.

All these modifications related to omissions of descriptive passages concerning nature result from privileging plot over other aspects of literature, such as characterization (through other means than the actions of a character) and description of the setting, which can become a character of its own. Whether it was the publisher or the translator who made the decisions on what should be omitted or modified, they have made these decisions based largely on assumptions about child readers’ preferences and needs. Of course some children prefer action-driven books, but this does not mean that children could not also appreciate other aspects of literature. Celebration of the beauty of nature is a way to describe characters and express feelings that children can enjoy and understand. For example Warnqvist’s reader response anthology Besläktade själar shows that the descriptions of nature in Montgomery’s books are greatly appreciated by many Swedish readers. Likewise, Montgomery’s originals have been appreciated by children and adults alike around the world. Children have the right to be presented with a diverse selection of literature also in translation and this should not be inhibited by imposing constraints on translations instead of letting them explore aspects deviating from the typical action-oriented characteristics of children’s literature. Fitting original works from other countries into publisher series with commercial constraints demanding conventional books is problematic and unfortunate.

It is important to be aware of the consequences of extensive omissions for textual interpretation of translations. In some cases and for some audiences, omissions can serve a purpose, but the reader should always be made aware that (s)he is reading an adapted translation. In the Swedish translations of the Emily trilogy unique features are lost for reasons that violate current translation norms. The Swedish translation of Emily Climbs analyzed in this paper was made in the 1950s and translation practices and norms have changed since then due to the professionalization of the translation field and increased respect for children’s literature. For example, didactic norms are of lesser importance today, and restrictions limiting the number of pages are hopefully less likely.

Omissions in translations contradict the author’s intent and probably the translation contract. The Swedish Emily trilogy is by no means the only translation of children’s literature where hidden abridgement is carried out and the author’s intent is changed significantly. Old translations of the Emily trilogy and other classics continue to be reprinted without mention of the adaptation. New, faithful translations of the Emily trilogy and many other classics are called for because the translation norms for children’s literature have changed.


Notes

1. This paper only considers the Swedish translation of the Emily trilogy, but the Finnish translation makes similar omissions, though they are less extensive. Many omissions are similar, because the Swedish translation was used as a secondary source text when the Finnish translation was revised in the 1960s.

2. Stina Hergin (1922–2001) is probably best known as the sister of the famous Swedish children’s author, Astrid Lindgren, writer of such books as Pippi Longstocking (1945). Hergin was an experienced translator of children’s literature, especially girls’ books. All in all, she translated 89 books, including another Montgomery book, Anne of Windy Poplars (National Library of Sweden).

3. The title Emily och hennes vänner [Emily and her friends] is not based on any of the original titles but has been created by the publisher when Emily of New Moon and Emily Climbs were divided into three books. In contrast to the original titles reflecting Emily’s development and ambitions, the additional title is very simple and non-descriptive. This may be another sign of that the translations were aimed at a young audience.

4. In the 1970s, Gleerup was incorporated with the publisher Liber, who published new editions of the 1950s Emily translations in the years 1983–1984 prior to publishing the previously untranslated Emily’s Quest. At this time Hergin’s original translations from the 1950s underwent linguistic revision to modernize the language, but the content was not changed and none of the omitted text was added. In the 1990s, the publisher Norstedt acquired the publication rights and published the same versions of the Emily books as Liber. The omitted text was still not added and has not been added in any editions to date.

5. The Swedish translation of Emily’s Quest made by Margareta Eklöf is called Emily gör sitt val [Emily makes her choice] and makes few omissions in comparison to the older translations and is not part of any series.


Works Cited


Primary Sources

Montgomery, L.M. Emily Climbs. New York: Bantam, 1993 [1925]. Print.

—. Emily på egna vägar. [Emily follows her own path.] Trans. Stina Hergin. Malmö: Gleerup, 1957. Print.

—. Emily och hennes vänner. [Emily and her friends.]. Trans. Stina Hergin. Malmö: Gleerup, 1956. Print.

Secondary sources

Allard, Danièle. “Hanako Muraoka’s Famous and Truncated Translation of Anne of Green Gables: Some Lingering Questions.” Storm and Dissonance: L.M. Montgomery and Conflict. Ed. Jean Mitchell. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008. 334–362. Print.

Chesterman, Andrew. “Causes, Translations, Effects.” Target 10, no. 2, (1998): 201–230. Print.

Davies, Eirlys E. “Leaving it Out: On Some Justifications for the Use of Omission in Translation.” Babel 53, no. 1 (2007): 56–77. Print.

Desmet, Mieke K.T. Babysitting the reader. Translating English Narrative Fiction for Girls into Dutch (1946–1995). Bern: Peter Lang, 2007. Print.

Desmidt, Isabelle. “A Prototypical Approach within Descriptive Translation Studies? Colliding Norms in Translated Children’s Literature.” Children’s Literature in Translation: Challenges and Strategies. Ed. Jan Van Coillie and Walter P. Verschueren. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 2006. 79–96. Print.

Dimitriu, Rodica. “Omissions in Translation.” Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 12, no. 3 (2004): 163–175. Print.

Even-Zohar, Itamar. Polysystem Studies. Special issue of Poetics Today 11, no. 1. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. Print.

Epperly, Elizabeth Rollins. L.M. Montgomery’s Photography and Visual Imagination. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007. Print.

Gammel, Irene. “Safe Pleasure for Girls: L.M. Montgomery’s Erotic Landscapes.” Making Avonlea: L.M. Montgomery and Popular Culture. Ed.Irene Gammel. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. 114–127. Print.

Leden, Laura. “Klassiska flickböcker i purifierad och förkortad översättning: Utelämningar i den svenska och finska översättningen av L.M. Montgomerys Emily-trilogi.” [Classic girls’ books in purified and abridged translation: Omissions in the Swedish and Finnish translation of L.M. Montgomery’s Emily trilogy.] MA thesis University of Helsinki, 2011. Print.

Mählqvist, Stefan. “Stina Hergin, 1911–2002.” Svenskt översättarlexikon. [Swedish translator lexicon.] Web. 3 May 2015.

National Library of Sweden. Libris. Web. 28 Jan. 2011.

Nikolajeva, Maria. “Exit Children’s Literature?” The Lion and the Unicorn 22, no. 2 (1998): 221–236. Print.

Nodelman, Perry. The Pleasures of Children’s Literature. New York: Longman, 1992. Print.

Rémi, Cornelia. “Interactions with Poetry: Metapoetic Games with Anne in Astrid Lindgren’s Madicken.” 100 Years of Anne with an “e”: The Centennial Study of Anne of Green Gables. Ed. Holly Blackford. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2009. 165–190. Print.

Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith. Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. London: Routledge, 1990 [1983]. Print.

Seifert, Martina. “Conflicting Images: Anne of Green Gables in Germany.” Storm and Dissonance: L.M. Montgomery and Conflict. Ed. Jean Mitchell. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008. 228–343. Print.

Shavit, Zohar. Poetics of Children’s Literature. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1986. Print.

Skjønsberg, Kari. Vem berättar? Om adaptioner i barnlitteratur. [Who tells the stories? About adaptations in children’s literature.] Trans. Ying Toijer-Nilsson. Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren, 1982. Print.

Warnqvist, Åsa. “‘I experienced a light that became part of me’: Reading Anne of Green Gables in Sweden.” Anne around the World. L.M. Montgomery and Her Classic. Ed. Jane Ledwell and Jean Mitchell. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. 228–242. Print.

—, ed. Besläktade själar: Läsupplevelser av Anne på Grönkulla. [Kindred spirits: Reading experiences of Anne of Green Gables.] Lund: BTJ, 2009. Print.

 

Laura Leden


Volume 18, Issue2, The Looking Glass, December 2015

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